Stateful objects, ICMP, bugs and tests

Sorry for the delay to post, this was a full week. Moving out is a laborious task, fortunately it is over now and I found time and inspiration to blog.

The past weeks were focused on a few good tasks, I’ll talk about them separately. One point they share is the need to track the execution path in code, many git greps and printfs were used but I think now I got a much better view of how everything works. When I need to see what a specific part of the execution does, I nearly always know instinctively what file/routine to analyze; this applies to nftables and libnftnl, in the kernel code I can’t always find my way easily, that’s a work in progress.

Now, about the actual tasks, one of them dealt with ICMP headers.

You can build rules in nftables to filter ICMP packets based on its header fields. Wikipedia has a good article about this protocol and shows that some header fields are variable. The meaning of the last 4 btyes depends on the fields type and code, the same field can represent mtu and sequence for example. But, this is a normal behavior, why this is relevant? Because nftables currently matches the offset of the field, to know which field to display on list ruleset. You can see this adding the rule:

$ nft add rule filter input icmp mtu 33 accept
$ nft list ruleset

icmp sequence 33 accept

Like I said, it matches the offset to know the field, since the fields mtu and sequence have the same offset they are displayed the same – in this case as sequence. I don’t think it spoils the filtering, the system will filter mtu, even though it displays sequence, although I’m not 100% sure on how the kernel handle this kind of rule. I say this because when a rule is written it has the right field on it, and the right message is sent to the kernel, which will set up the filtering. The problem happens on list ruleset, nft asks the active rules and the kernel return some structures. With these structures nft builds and displays the ruleset; when the rule is about ICMP header fields it has only the offset field available, and based on the offset the field name is chosen.

I spent more time that I’d like to admit to find the exact routine, where the field name is chosen, and to understand how the header matching works. Went trough the whole process of matching a rule, evaluating it, linearizing it to send netlkink messages to the kernel, and finally doing something similar to list the rule.  My conclusion is: with the available information, received from the kernel, it’s not possible to always display the right field. I think we need to add a new field to the message describing the rule the kernel returns.

I added a new field to header structures, on the corresponding parts of the nft, libnftnl and kernel code; After a little debugging, the ICMP fields were displayed as expected with list ruleset. However, the changes were a little intrusive and I can’t evaluate the side effects they have, also, maybe there is a simpler way that I didn’t see. The patches are still being evaluated.

That’s it for ICMP, in summary, the fix I proposed wasn’t applied yet, maybe never will, but making it taught me a lot about how the system works. It was good for learning, hopefully the report was useful to at least provide a new insight about the problem.

The next task was about stateful objects, this one yielded patches after some time invested. Stateful objects are a new feature of nftables, you can read about them here. In a few words, they make counters and quotas, also limits in the future, independent from rules, to help organizing the ruleset. Most of it was implemented in the linked patchset, but some features lacked the code, in nft, to work.

The main feature needed was to reset a single object in a table, a provisional patch was available to base the changes on. This provisional patch proved to be almost ready to join the codebase, only needed improvement on evaluating the command before executing and some testing. Then I worked on listing a single object, and reseting and listing all objects in a table, all related to the first one. After those new features I went to create some tests for stateful objects, the testing system in nft is divided in python and shell tests.

Shell tests are used to test for high level functionalities and bugs, sometimes when a bug is disclosed a shell test is created to make sure this bug never appears again. I wrote a shell test for a known bug last week, and while thinking and experimenting I found another one. Usually the bugs of nftables are archived here, until they’re cleared. The new found bug was solved by Pablo, in a lot less time than it took me to experiment and write the bug report, and also inspired a shell test.

Python tests are more focused on functionalities and system behavior, at a lower level than shell tests, it simulates the end user. Many of the possible rules are tested, an example is create a set and reference it in a rule. What I said about ICMP and the header fields is tested in this suit, and results in many warnings because a mtu rule is listed as sequence.

Before sending a patch to the mailing list you must run both test suits. If it triggers a new error, then you better not send it; I did, on my first patch, tested a lot before sending but wasn’t aware of the automated tests and broke some of them with the patch. A few hours later I received a friendly warning to never do it again, never did. In fact, the past week I helped on making new tests, the shell tests mentioned and a some pytests for stateful objects.

As I said, stateful objects are a new feature, there were no tests for it, actually, the python tests had no support for adding stateful objects to them. Then, the first step was to provide this support, modifying the script that read the testcases so it allows adding objects to tables and referencing them in rules. Next step was to create the actual tests, they test for adding objects to tables and creating simple rules with them. Having tests to detect bugs is very helpful, sometimes even when the bug has no solution yet it’s useful to create a test for it, to remind that the problem exists and must be addressed.

Although this past week was full of unrelated but urgent issues, I liked those past three weeks very much – this one isn’t over yet, the weekend will be full of bug solving :), I did work on many different parts of the system and get used with them.

Once I said about having a post dedicated to how nftables is organized under the sheets, a kind of guide aimed to those starting on it as developers. I feel more comfortable to start it now, probably this week I’ll begin it and update it when its needed. See you.


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